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Some are a bit more obscure, but they possess history and purpose. Democratic and Republican Party Symbols.
The Democratic Party has a donkey as its symbol. Those against Andrew Jackson often referred to. The Republican Party, on the other hand, has an elephant as its symbol.
Libertarian Party Symbols. Constitution Party. Because the party clings to traditional. Political Parties Analysis.
Search this site. Navigation Home. In , due to increased interest in enrolling in the school, school officials decided to move to a larger facility and subsequently changed the school's name to Oakland Community School.
During this year, the school graduated its first class. The school eventually closed in due to governmental pressure on party leadership which caused insufficient membership and funds to continue running the school.
The raid had been orchestrated by the police in conjunction with the FBI. Hampton was shot and killed, as was Panther guard Mark Clark.
A federal investigation reported that only one shot was fired by the Panthers, and police fired at least 80 shots.
Coroner reports show that Hampton was drugged with a powerful barbiturate that night, and would have been unable to have been awoken by the sounds of the police raid.
He was 21 years old and unarmed at the time of his death. Seven other Panthers sleeping at the house at the time of the raid were then beaten and seriously wounded, then arrested under charges of aggravated assault and attempted murder of the officers involved in the raid.
These charges would later be dropped. Cook County State's Attorney Edward Hanrahan , his assistant and eight Chicago police officers were indicted by a federal grand jury over the raid, but the charges were later dismissed.
In May , three members of the New Haven chapter tortured and murdered Alex Rackley , a year-old member of the New York chapter, because they suspected him of being a police informant.
Sams, who gave the order to shoot Rackley at the murder scene, turned state's evidence and testified that he had received orders personally from Bobby Seale to carry out the execution.
Party supporters responded that Sams was himself the informant and an agent provocateur employed by the FBI. Kimbro and Sams were convicted of the murder, but the trials of Seale and Ericka Huggins ended with a hung jury, and the prosecution chose not to seek another trial.
Activists from many countries around the globe supported the Panthers and their cause. In Scandinavian countries such as Norway and Finland, for example, left-wing activists organized a tour for Bobby Seale and Masai Hewitt in At each destination along the tour, the Panthers talked about their goals and the "Free Huey!
Seale and Hewitt made a stop in Germany as well, gaining support for the "Free Huey! In , a group of Panthers traveled through Asia and they were welcomed as guests of the governments of North Vietnam , North Korea , and China.
The group's first stop was in North Korea, where the Panthers met with local officials in order to discuss ways in which they could help each other fight against American imperialism.
Eldridge Cleaver traveled to Pyongyang twice in and , and following these trips he made an effort to publicize the writings and works of North Korean leader Kim Il-sung in the United States.
He encouraged them to join the Black Liberation Struggle by arguing that the United States government was only using them for its own purposes.
Instead of risking their lives on the battlefield for a country that continued to oppress them, Cleaver believed that the black GIs should risk their lives in support of their own liberation.
After leaving Vietnam, Cleaver met with the Chinese ambassador to Algeria in order to express their mutual animosity towards the American government.
Among the important figures invited to the festival were Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver. The cultural festival allowed Black Panthers to network with representatives of various international anti-imperialist movements.
This was a significant time, which led to the formation of the International Section of the Party. Eldridge also met with Yasser Arafat , and gave a speech supporting the Palestinians and their goal of achieving liberation.
In early , the BPP founded the "Intercommunal Youth Institute" in January ,  with the intent of demonstrating how black youth ought to be educated.
Ericka Huggins was the director of the school and Regina Davis was an administrator. Significant disagreements among the Party's leaders over how to confront ideological differences led to a split within the party.
Certain members felt that the Black Panthers should participate in local government and social services, while others encouraged constant conflict with the police.
For some of the Party's supporters, the separations among political action, criminal activity, social services, access to power, and grass-roots identity became confusing and contradictory as the Panthers' political momentum was bogged down in the criminal justice system.
These and other disagreements led to a split. Some Panther leaders, such as Huey Newton and David Hilliard , favored a focus on community service coupled with self-defense; others, such as Eldridge Cleaver , embraced a more confrontational strategy.
Eldridge Cleaver deepened the schism in the party when he publicly criticized the Party for adopting a " reformist " rather than " revolutionary " agenda and called for Hilliard's removal.
Cleaver was expelled from the Central Committee but went on to lead a splinter group, the Black Liberation Army , which had previously existed as an underground paramilitary wing of the Party.
The split turned violent, as the Newton and Cleaver factions carried out retaliatory assassinations of each other's members, resulting in the deaths of four people.
In late September , Huey P. Newton led a delegation to China and stayed for 10 days. One of these meetings also included Mao Zedong's wife Jiang Qing.
Huey described China as "a free and liberated territory with a socialist government". In , the party began closing down dozens of chapters and branches all over the country, and bringing members and operations to Oakland.
The political arm of the southern California chapter was shut down and its members moved to Oakland, although the underground military arm remained for a time.
The party developed a five-year plan to take over the city of Oakland politically. Bobby Seale ran for mayor, Elaine Brown ran for city council, and other Panthers ran for minor offices.
Neither Seale nor Brown were elected. A few Panthers won seats on local government commissions. Newton expelled Hewitt from the party later in , but the security cadre remained in operation under the leadership of Flores Forbes.
One of the cadre's main functions was to extort and rob drug dealers and after-hours clubs.
In , Huey Newton and eight other Panthers were arrested and charged with assault on police officers. Newton went into exile in Cuba to avoid prosecution for the murder of Kathleen Smith, an eighteen-year-old prostitute.
Newton was also indicted for pistol-whipping his tailor, Preston Callins. Although Newton confided to friends that Kathleen Smith was his "first nonpolitical murder", he was ultimately acquitted, after one witness's testimony was impeached by her admission that she had been smoking marijuana on the night of the murder, and another prostitute witness recanted her testimony.
Under Brown's leadership, the Party became involved in organizing for more radical electoral campaigns, including Brown's unsuccessful run for Oakland City Council.
In addition to changing the Party's direction towards more involvement in the electoral arena, Brown also increased the influence of women Panthers by placing them in more visible roles within the previously male-dominated organization.
Van Patter had previously served as a bookkeeper for Ramparts magazine, and was introduced to the Panther leadership by David Horowitz , who had been the editor of Ramparts and a major fundraiser and board member for the Panther school.
Some weeks later, her severely beaten corpse was found on a San Francisco Bay beach. There was insufficient evidence for police to charge anyone with van Patter's murder, but the Black Panther Party leadership was "almost universally believed to be responsible".
Huey Newton later allegedly confessed to a friend that he had ordered Van Patter's murder, and that Van Patter had been tortured and raped before being killed.
In , Newton returned from exile in Cuba, and complaints from male members about the excessive power of women in the organization, who now outnumbered men.
According to Elaine Brown, Newton authorized the physical punishment of school administrator Regina Davis for scolding a male coworker.
Davis was hospitalized with a broken jaw. Although many scholars and activists date the Party's downfall to the period before Brown's leadership, a shrinking cadre of Panthers struggled through the s.
By , Panther membership had dwindled to 27, and the Panther-sponsored school closed in amid a scandal over Newton embezzling funds for his drug addiction.
In October Flores Forbes, the party's assistant chief of staff, led a botched attempt to assassinate Crystal Gray, a key prosecution witness in Newton's upcoming trial, who had been present the day of Kathleen Smith's murder.
After attacking the wrong house by mistake, the occupant returned fire and killed one of the Panthers, Louis Johnson, while the other two assailants escaped.
Fearing that Malloy would discover the truth behind the botched assassination attempt, Newton allegedly ordered a "house cleaning", and Malloy was shot and buried alive in the desert.
Although permanently paralyzed from the waist down, Malloy escaped and told police that fellow Panthers Rollin Reid and Allen Lewis were behind his attempted murder.
From its beginnings, the Black Panther Party championed black masculinity and traditional gender roles. Nevertheless, women were present in the party from the early days and expanded their roles throughout its life.
The same year, Deputy Chairman Fred Hampton of the Illinois chapter conducted a meeting condemning sexism. The Black Panthers adopted a womanist ideology responding to the unique experiences of African-American women,  emphasizing racism as more oppressive than sexism.
Henceforth, the Party newspaper portrayed women as intelligent political revolutionaries, exemplified by members such as Kathleen Cleaver , Angela Davis and Erika Huggins.
Police killed or incarcerated many male leaders, but female Panthers were less targeted for much of the s and s.
By , women made up two-thirds of the party, while many male members were out of duty. In the absence of much of the original male leadership, women moved into all parts of the organization.
Women in the group called attention to sexism within the Party, and worked to make changes from within. From to the end of its publication in , the head editors of the Black Panther Party newspaper were all women.
During the s, recognizing the limited access poor women had to abortion, the Party officially supported women's reproductive rights, including abortion.
Many women Panthers began to demand childcare to be able to fully participate in the organization. The Party responded by establishing on-site child development centers in multiple US chapters.
Childcare allowed women Panthers to embrace motherhood while fully participating in Party activism. The Party experienced significant problems in several chapters with sexism and gender oppression, particularly in the Oakland chapter where cases of sexual harassment and gender conflict were common.
In response, the Chicago and New York chapters, among others, established equal gender rights as a priority and tried to eradicate sexist attitudes.
By the time the Black Panther Party disbanded, official policy was to reprimand men who violated the rules of gender equality. In the beginning, recruiting women was a low priority for Newton and Seale.
Also, they didn't realize that women could help the fight until one came into an interest meeting asking about "female leadership".
She grew up around police brutality, so it was nothing new. Her goal in joining was "smashing racism" because she viewed herself as Black before she was a woman.
In her community, that identity is what she felt held her back the most. The Black Panther Party was involved in many community projects as part of their organization.
These projects included community outreach, like the breakfast program, education, and health programs.
From the beginning of the Black Panther Party education was a fundamental goal of the organization. This was highlighted in the Ten Point Platform, the newspaper that was distributed by the party, and the public commentary shared by the Panthers.
In , she became chair for the Oakland chapter. She was appointed by Huey Newton , the previous chair, while Newton and other leaders dealt with legal issues.
She appointed many female officials, and faced backlash for her policies for equality within the organization. When Huey Newton returned from exile and approved of the beating of a female Panther school teacher, Brown left the organization.
In 12th grade, she decided to work full-time with the Party, dropping out of chaotic Denby High School in Detroit.
In the BBP, she "was living as part of a collective" where all work was shared, and she enjoyed working all day selling newspapers.
She climbed the ranks and became the branch's Communications Secretary in January , after her predecessor left due to "some issues related to sexism ".
In this branch, unlike the average BBP divisions, the "brothers" never turned violent or physical: "That kind of thing didn't take place in Detroit.
Summing up the legacy of the Detroit branch, she says, "It's crucial that people realize that the strength of the organization was rooted in discipline, deep commitment, and a genuine love for the people.
There is considerable debate about the impact of the Black Panther Party on the wider society, or even their local environments.
Author Jama Lazerow writes:. In , the Panthers defined Oakland's ghetto as a territory, the police as interlopers, and the Panther mission as the defense of community.
The Panthers' famous "policing the police" drew attention to the spatial remove that White Americans enjoyed from the police brutality that had come to characterize life in black urban communities.
Professor Judson Jeffries of Purdue University calls the Panthers "the most effective black revolutionary organization in the 20th century".
Most of them praise the BPP's contribution to black liberation and American democracy. Because they had courage, today I stand as In January , a joint California state and Federal task force charged eight men with the August 29, , murder of California police officer Sgt.
John Young. Jones, Richard Brown and Harold Taylor. Also that month Jalil Muntaquim pleaded no contest to conspiracy to commit voluntary manslaughter, becoming the second person convicted in this case.
Since the s, former Panther chief of staff David Hilliard has offered tours in Oakland of sites historically significant to the Black Panther Party.
In April Panthers were key supporters of the Sit-Ins , the longest of which was the day occupation of the San Francisco Federal Building by over people with disabilities.
Panthers provided daily home-cooked meals in support of the protest's eventual success, which eventually led to the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA thirteen years later.
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Click here to contact us. Black Panther Party. Politics of United States Political parties Elections. History Origins. Play media. Main article: Ten-Point Program.
The Black Panther Party's free breakfast program is "the greatest threat to efforts by authorities to neutralize the BPP and destroy what it stands for.
Main article: New Black Panther Party. Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved June 11, While the exact size of the party is difficult to determine,the best estimates are that at its peak in , the Black Panthers had as many as 5, members and between thirty-four and forty local chapters in the United States.
The Black Panthers have discarded their barely concealed anti-Semitism, insisting in the past they were not against Jews but only against Zionism, and have now declared that Jewishness, Zionism and racism are identical.
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