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Alpacas are usually quite easy to herd; even in large groups. Although when being herded, it is recommended that the handler approaches the animals slowly and quietly, not doing this can result in danger for both the animals and the handler.
Alpaca and llamas have started showing up in U. The Mayo Clinic says animal-assisted therapy can reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and fatigue.
This type of animal therapy is growing in popularity, and there are several organizations throughout the United States that participate.
Not all alpacas spit, but all are capable of doing so. Spitting is mostly reserved for other alpacas, but an alpaca will also occasionally spit at a human.
Spitting can result in what is called "sour mouth". Sour mouth is characterized by a loose-hanging lower lip and a gaping mouth.
Alpacas can spit for several reasons. A female alpaca spits when she is not interested in a male alpaca, typically when she thinks that she is already impregnated.
Both sexes of alpaca keep others away from their food, or anything they have their eyes on. Most give a slight warning before spitting by blowing air out and raising their heads, giving their ears a "pinned" appearance.
Alpacas can spit up to ten feet if they need to. For example, if another animal does not back off, the alpaca will throw up its stomach contents, resulting in a lot of spit.
Some signs of stress which can lead to their spitting habits include: humming, a wrinkle under their eye, drooling, rapid breathing, and stomping their feet.
When alpacas show any sign of interest or alertness, they tend to sniff their surroundings, watch closely, or stand quietly in place and stare.
When it comes to reproduction, they spit because it is a response triggered by the progesterone levels being increased, which is associated with ovulation.
Alpacas use a communal dung pile ,  where they do not graze. This behaviour tends to limit the spread of internal parasites.
Generally, males have much tidier, and fewer dung piles than females, which tend to stand in a line and all go at once.
Alpaca waste is collected and used as garden fertilizer or even natural fertilizer. Because of their preference for using a dung pile, some alpacas have been successfully house-trained.
Alpacas develop dental hygiene problems which affect their eating and behavior. Warning signs include protracted chewing while eating, or food spilling out of their mouths.
Poor body condition and sunken cheeks are also telltales of dental problems. Females are induced ovulators ;  the act of mating and the presence of semen causes them to ovulate.
Females usually conceive after just one breeding, but occasionally do have trouble conceiving. Artificial insemination is technically difficult, expensive and not common, but it can be accomplished.
Embryo transfer is more widespread. A male is usually ready to mate for the first time between two and three years of age.
It is not advisable to allow a young female to be bred until she is mature and has reached two-thirds of her mature weight. Over-breeding a young female before conception is possibly a common cause of uterine infections.
As the age of maturation varies greatly between individuals, it is usually recommended that novice breeders wait until females are 18 months of age or older before initiating breeding.
Alpacas can breed at any time but it is more difficult to breed in the winter. Most breed during autumn or late spring.
Pen mating is when they move both the female and the desired male into a pen. Another way is paddock mating where one male alpaca is let loose in the paddock with several female alpacas.
The gestation period is, on an average, Twins are rare, occurring about once per deliveries. Crias may be weaned through human intervention at about six months old and 60 pounds, but many breeders prefer to allow the female to decide when to wean her offspring; they can be weaned earlier or later depending on their size and emotional maturity.
The average lifespan of an alpaca is between 15—20 years, and the longest-lived alpaca on record is 27 years.
Alpacas can be found all over South America. They are easy to care for since they are not limited to a specific type of environment.
Animals such as flamingos , condors , spectacled bears , mountain lions, coyotes, llamas, and sheep live near alpacas when they are in their natural habitat.
Alpacas are native to Peru , but can be found throughout the globe. The Spanish also brought with them diseases that were fatal to alpacas.
European conquest forced the animals to move higher into the mountains, [ how? Although alpacas had almost been wiped out completely, they were rediscovered sometime during the 19th century by Europeans.
After finding uses for them, the animals became important to societies during the industrial revolution.
Alpacas chew their food which ends up being mixed with their cud and saliva and then they swallow it. Alpacas usually eat 1.
They mainly need pasture grass, hay, or silage but some may also need supplemental energy and protein foods and they will also normally try to chew on almost anything e.
Most alpaca ranchers rotate their feeding grounds so the grass can regrow and fecal parasites may die before reusing the area.
Pasture grass is a great source of protein. When seasons change, the grass loses or gains more protein. They get their fiber from hay or from long stems which provides them with vitamin E.
Green grass contains vitamin A and E. Alpacas can eat natural unfertilized grass; however, ranchers can also supplement grass with low-protein grass hay.
To provide selenium and other necessary vitamins, ranchers will feed their domestic alpacas a daily dose of grain to provide additional nutrients that are not fully obtained from their primary diet.
Alpacas, like other camelids, have a three-chambered stomach; combined with chewing cud , this three-chambered system allows maximum extraction of nutrients from low-quality forages.
Alpacas are not ruminants, pseudo-ruminants, or modified ruminants, as there are many differences between the anatomy and physiology of a camelid and a ruminant stomach.
Alpacas will chew their food in a figure eight motion, swallow the food, and then pass it into one of the stomach's chambers.
The first and second chambers called C1 and C2 are anaerobic fermentation chambers where the fermentation process begins.
The alpaca will further absorb nutrients and water in the first part of the third chamber. The end of the third chamber called C3 is where the stomach secretes acids to digest food and is the likely place where an alpaca will have ulcers if stressed.
Many plants are poisonous to the alpaca, including the bracken fern , Madagascar ragwort , oleander , and some azaleas.
In common with similar livestock, others include: acorns , African rue , agave , amaryllis , autumn crocus , bear grass , broom snakeweed , buckwheat , ragweed , buttercups , calla lily , orange tree foliage, carnations , castor beans , and many others.
Alpaca fleece is a lustrous and silky natural fiber. While similar to sheep's wool, it is warmer, not prickly, and bears no lanolin , which makes it hypoallergenic.
It is also soft and luxurious. In physical structure, alpaca fiber is somewhat akin to hair, being very glossy. Alpacas are typically sheared once per year in the spring.
Each shearing produces approximately 2. An adult alpaca might produce 1. The quality of alpaca fiber is determined by how crimpy it is.
Typically, the greater the number of small folds in the fiber, the greater the quality. Alpacas were the subject of a speculative bubble between their introduction to North America in and the early 21st century.
Marketed as "the investment you can hug" in television commercials by the Alpaca Owners and Breeders Association, the market for alpacas was almost entirely dependent on breeding and selling animals to new buyers, a classic sign of speculative bubbles in livestock.
The bubble burst in , with the price of alpaca breeding stock dropping by thousands of dollars each year thereafter.
Many farmers found themselves unable to sell animals for any price, or even give them away. It is possible to raise up to 25 alpacas per hectare 10 alpacas per acre ,  as they have a designated area for waste products and keep their eating area away from their waste area.
However, this ratio differs from country to country and is highly dependent on the quality of pasture available in many desert locations it is generally only possible to run one to three animals per acre due to lack of suitable vegetation.
Fiber quality is the primary variant in the price achieved for alpaca wool; in Australia, it is common to classify the fiber by the thickness of the individual hairs and by the amount of vegetable matter contained in the supplied shearings.
When formulating a proper diet for alpacas, water and hay analysis should be performed to determine the proper vitamin and mineral supplementation program.
Indigenous to the highest regions of the Andes , this harsh environment has created an extremely hardy animal, so only minimal housing and predator fencing are needed.
There are no viable seeds in the manure, because alpacas prefer to only eat tender plant leaves, and will not consume thick plant stems; therefore, alpaca manure does not need composting to enrich pastures or ornamental landscaping.
Nail and teeth trimming are needed every six to twelve months, along with annual shearing. Similar to ruminants, such as cattle and sheep, alpacas have only lower teeth at the front of their mouths; therefore, they do not pull the grass up by the roots.
Rotating pastures is still important, though, as alpacas have a tendency to regraze an area repeatedly. Alpacas are fiber-producing animals; they do not need to be slaughtered to reap their product, and their fiber is a renewable resource that grows yearly.
Alpacas are closely tied to cultural practices for Andeans people. Prior to colonization, the image of the alpaca was used in rituals and in their religious practices.
Since the people in the region depended heavily on these animals for their sustenance, the alpaca was seen as a gift from Pachamama.
Alpacas were used for their meat, fibers for clothing, and art, and their images in the form of conopas. Conopas take their appearance from the Suri alpacas, with long locks flanking their sides and bangs covering the eyes, and a depression on the back.
This depression is used in ritual practices, usually filled with coca leaves and fat from alpacas and lamas, to bring fertility and luck.
While their use was prevalent before colonization, the attempts to convert the Andean people to Catholicism led to the acquisition of more than 3, conopas in Lima alone.
The origin of alpaca is depicted in legend; the legend states they came to be in the world after a goddess fell in love with a man. On top of caring for the herd, he was to always carry a small animal for his entire life.
As the goddess came into our world, the alpacas followed her. Everything was fine until the man set the small animal down, and the goddess fled back to her home.
On her way back home, the man attempted to stop her and her herd from fleeing. While he was not able to stop her from returning, he was able to stop a few alpacas from returning.
These alpacas who did not make it back are said to be seen today in the swampy lands in the Andes waiting for the end of the world, so they may return to their goddess.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Domesticated species of South American camelid. This article is about the animal.
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Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? In the late s, the Spanish military began modernizing their handguns.
The extensive trials continued into the s and Llama-Gabilondo proposed first, the Omni series, and then later a new model, the M Both entries were radical departures from their normal products and used the latest technology.
The first Omni dispensed with the Browning style swinging link in favour of the Browning type fixed cam to lock the breech. Apart from the method of locking the breech, other features of the pistol were highly innovative.
Three new magazine designs were tried. Omni I was a. Another feature was the two-piece ball-jointed firing pin, which was designed to never break.
Additionally the Omni had dual sear bars for improved trigger pull; a trigger safety; finger-contoured trigger guard and a decocking manual safety lever.
The wealth of features meant the Omni was an expensive pistol to make compared to previous models, and together with its radical appearance, this discouraged commercial sales.
Production of the Omni therefore ceased in Despite the Omni's lack of success, it was used as the point of departure for the military M design.
While the appearance of the pistol remained the same, the mechanism was completely changed and numerous features copied from the Beretta M including the locking mechanism, the trigger mechanism and the number of rounds 15 in the magazine.
However, the open-topped slide of the Beretta was rejected in favour of a traditional closed slide with ejection port.
An extractor-mounted loaded chamber indicator , reversible magazine release and ambidextrous safety levers were also included.
Military models had a magazine safety, but this could be removed on request for commercial customers. Commercial models experience difficulties feeding some brands of hollowpoint ammunition, and unsurprisingly, best reliability is achieved with NATO specification ball ammunition.
The Llama M was introduced in This was a high-grade competition pistol based on M with extended barrel, compensator, muzzle weight, target sights, target trigger, additional manual safety, extended magazine release, extended safety levers, beveled magazine well, and two-tone finish chrome with blued slide.
However the glowing reviews were unable to overcome distrust of so many innovations on such an expensive gun. The great success of the Para-Ordnance high-capacity type pistols led to design changes to some models starting in The Llama IX-C was manufactured from to It was similar to the Llama IX-A except for the round double column magazine.
It was fitted with a special Swartz safety, first used by Colt in the s, to prevent accidental discharge when the pistol is dropped on a hard surface.
Because of the thickness of the magazine well, the arched mainspring housing was reduced in size to allow a better grip for normal sized hands.
Following the passage of the US Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act late in , magazine capacity was dropped to 10 rounds in and several minor changes made to the shape of hammer and safety.
The next model to be released, in , was the MAX-1 pistol. This was Llamas equivalent to the Colt Government model.
This conformed more closely to the Colt A1 than any previous Llama, and removed some of the traditional Llama features such as the ventilated rib.
However the slimmer mainspring housing from the IX-C was retained, a move considered by smaller-handed shooters to give this model superior handling qualities.
The ban on the import of Chinese weapons contributed to this models success in the low-cost " clone" market, although there were problems fitting many aftermarket accessories.
This is shorter and lighter than the MAX-1 but retains the same magazine capacity 7-round in. It was produced in 9mm Parabellum and 38 Super 8-round capacity ,.
The overall length was 7. Designed for concealed carry, it featured an extended safety lever, rounded hammer, Swartz safety, 3-dot sight, checkered neoprene grips and contoured trigger-guard.
Standard type magazines could be used in the. A wide range of finishes were available including matte blue, satin chrome, and two-tone.
Initial reviews were disappointing citing mediocre accuracy and occasional malfunctions, but these may be related to quality control issues and ammunition choice rather than design failure.
In , the Mini-Max II was launched. Higher capacities were available for US law enforcement and international sales.
This was similar in style to the Minimax, with a matte black or satin-chrome finish and 3. While an inability to rapidly modernise its manufacturing capability might have eventually doomed the company, it was the Asian Economic Crisis of the early s that directly brought about the crisis that engulfed Llama.
Spanish banks that had extended bad loans in East Asia tried to cover their losses by restricting credit domestically, including to Llama.
Llama filed for bankruptcy in , and in sixty of its gunsmiths and employees formed a co-operative to buy the Llama name and all of the equipment.
These Gabilondo employees negotiated over a protracted period and finalised the transfer around The company began to diversify offering not just handguns but precision parts made by investment casting.
The main problem with the new group was sales were not rising fast enough to cover the old debt they inherited from Llama. Fabrinor was able to reschedule the debts in and again in , but even public listing on the stock market didn't help generate the funds required.
Because of regulatory intervention, Fabrinor was compelled to call a special shareholder meeting on 12 January , to reveal fully to shareholders the company's financial situation, its plans to restructure into a limited partnership and the latest plans to reschedule its inherited debts.
The plans were rejected and the plant in Legutiano was closed. Star Bonifacio Echevarria S. With the long lingering collapse of Fabrinor, the ruling post-depression triumvirate of Spanish pistol makers came to an end.
Nagant revolvers in 7. Colt New Service copies in. Ruby Extra revolvers represented Gabilondo's economy range of revolvers.
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